Dr. Clark's blog of the University of Central Oklahoma Department of Mass Communication History of Journalism Class

Monday, October 31, 2016

War Correspondents

Do you know who Ernie Pyle was?
Read: D-Day



 
NORMANDY BEACHHEAD, June 16, 1944 – I took a walk along the historic coast of Normandy in the country of France.
It was a lovely day for strolling along the seashore. Men were sleeping on the sand, some of them sleeping forever. 
Men were floating in the water, but they didn’t know they were in the water, for they were dead.
The water was full of squishy little jellyfish about the size of your hand. Millions of them. In the center each of them had a green design exactly like a four-leaf clover. The good-luck emblem. Sure. Hell yes.
I walked for a mile and a half along the water’s edge of our many-miled invasion beach. 
You wanted to walk slowly, for the detail on that beach was infinite.
The wreckage was vast and startling. The awful waste and destruction of war, even aside from the loss of human life, has always been one of its outstanding features to those who are in it. Anything and everything is expendable. 
And we did expend on our beachhead in Normandy during those first few hours.
For a mile out from the beach there were scores of tanks and trucks and boats that you could no longer see, for they were at the bottom of the water – swamped by overloading, or hit by shells, or sunk by mines. Most of their crews were lost.
You could see trucks tipped half over and swamped. You could see partly sunken barges, and the angled-up corners of jeeps, and small landing craft half submerged. And at low tide you could still see those vicious six-pronged iron snares that helped snag and wreck them.
On the beach itself, high and dry, were all kinds of wrecked vehicles. There were tanks that had only just made the beach before being knocked out. There were jeeps that had been burned to a dull gray. There were big derricks on caterpillar treads that didn’t quite make it. There were half-tracks carrying office equipment that had been made into a shambles by a single shell hit, their interiors still holding their useless equipage of smashed typewriters, telephones, office files.
There were LCT’s (landing craft tanks) turned completely upside down, and lying on their backs, and how they got that way I don’t know. There were boats stacked on top of each other, their sides caved in, their suspension doors knocked off.
In this shoreline museum of carnage, there were abandoned rolls of barbed wire and smashed bulldozers and big stacks of thrown-away lifebelts and piles of shells still waiting to be moved.
In the water floated empty life rafts and soldiers’ packs and ration boxes, and mysterious oranges.
On the beach lay snarled rolls of telephone wire and big rolls of steel matting and stacks of broken, rusting rifles.
On the beach lay, expended, sufficient men and mechanism for a small war. They were gone forever now. And yet we could afford it.
We could afford it because we were on, we had our toehold, and behind us there were such enormous replacements for this wreckage on the beach that you could hardly conceive of their sum total. Men and equipment were flowing from England in such a gigantic stream that it made the waste on the beachhead seem like nothing at all, really nothing at all.
A few hundred yards back on the beach is a high bluff. Up there we had a tent hospital, and a barbed-wire enclosure for prisoners of war. From up there you could see far up and down the beach, in a spectacular crow’s-nest view, and far out to sea.
And standing out there on the water beyond all this wreckage was the greatest armada man has ever seen. You simply could not believe the gigantic collection of ships that lay out there waiting to unload.
Looking from the bluff, it lay thick and clear to the far horizon of the sea and beyond, and it spread out to the sides and was miles wide. Its utter enormity would move the hardest man.
As I stood up there I noticed a group of freshly taken German prisoners standing nearby. They had not yet been put in the prison cage. They were just standing there, a couple of doughboys leisurely guarding them with tommy guns.
The prisoners too were looking out to sea – the same bit of sea that for months and years had been so safely empty before their gaze. Now they stood staring almost as if in a trance.
They didn’t say a word to each other. They didn’t need to. The expression on their faces was something forever unforgettable. In it was the final horrified acceptance of their doom.
If only all Germans could have had the rich experience of standing on the bluff and looking out across the water and seeing what their compatriots saw.
War Correspondent

Who was Edward R. Murrow?

War Correspondent

London

Blitz

Tuesday, October 18, 2016

Presentation guidelines, schedule

1. 3-page paper, handed into prof day of presentation
2. 1-page outline to each member of class
3. 10-minute presentation
4. Must include: (Hint: make outline for class first)
  • Powerpoint optional, but must include photographs, visuals, including photograph, dated timeline chart of life
  • List of important journalism by title, or work
  • A brief sample of their work
  • Why they're important to American journalism
  • Lessons for today?
Schedule:
Nov. 3--Casey, Ereich
Nov. 8--McKenna, Taylor
Nov. 10--Derrick, Alex
Nov. 15--Grecia, Auri
Nov. 17--Macy, Blaze
Nov. 22--Nate, Evelyn
Nov. 29--Peter, Meagan
Dec. 1--T.J., Carolyn
Dec. 6--Rachel

Remainder of semester schedule
Oct. 25-27--Jazz, radio, Depression
Nov. 1-2--World War II
Nov. 8-1---Television, 1950s
Nov. 15-17--Vietnam, Watergate
Nov. 22--Satellites, computers, cable
Nov. 29-Dec. 1--Internet, digital
Dec. 6-9--"Social," trends

Media evaluation paper due Dec. 9

Dec. 13--Final Test

Monday, October 3, 2016

"Take-aways" so far

What we've covered, what you should know and understand
    1.    Public Occurrences--1690--Benjamin Harris
    2.    New England Courant--1721--James Franklin--Unshackled from government, spirit of rebellion
    3.    Pennsylvania Gazette--1729--Ben Franklin--Made journalism respectable
    4.    Commerce and advertising fueled growth
    5.    Political tensions, controversy, fueled growth
    6.    John Peter Zenger case 1734-35--precedent for truth as defense in libel by 1790
    7.    Press there to criticize the government
    8.    "Fourth Estate"
    9.    Handset type
    10.    Upper case, lower case
    11.    English common press
    12.    Colonial press--3 branches--Tory, Whig, Rebels
    13.    First cartoon-- join or die
    14.    Thomas Paine
    15.    Common sense
    16.    Thomas Jefferson
    17.    Gonzo Journalism
    18.    First Amendment
    19.    Alexander Hamilton, New York Post
    20.    First Daily--Penn Evening Post
    21.    Federalist papers
    22.    Alien and Sedition Acts
    23.    Newseum
    24.    9/11 impact on journalism
    25.    partisan press
    26.    labor papers
    27.    people's press
    28.    penny press Ben Day NY Sun
    29.    NY Herald James Bennett
    30.    Jane Grey Swisshelm
    31.    Telegraph
    32.    Railroads
    33.    steam-powered press
    34.    Sheet fed
    35.    Postal service
    36.    Cherokee Phoenix, Advocate
    37.    Eufaula Indian Journal

    38.    Horace Greeley NY Tribune
    39.    Rotary Press
    40.    Mexican War
    41.    Associated Press--the wire
    42.    Photography, Matt Brady, wet plate
    43.    woodcuts
    44.    Sectionalism, war
    45.    Abolitionist press--James Garrison The Liberator
    46.    Black--Freedom's Journal
    47.    Frederick Douglass, North Star
    48.    war affects writing
    49.    inverted pyramid, 30, briefer
    50.    Civil war "specials"
    52.   Turning the rules
    53.    web press
    53.    Influence of sectionalism,  economics, expansion, racism, urban vs. frontier, war, covering war, postal service, technology, literacy, controversy, roll in revolution,

The old way

Linotype
In Colorado

Photography's impact