Dr. Clark's blog of the University of Central Oklahoma Department of Mass Communication History of Journalism Class

Tuesday, November 29, 2016

Final paper

Media evaluation-- You will provide a one-page, double-spaced statement of what you believe to be the most important mass media development to date and why. I will grade this on the basis of grammar, punctuation, spelling and how well you logically defend your position. This will be turned in at the time of the final exam and count one third of your final grade.

Thursday, November 10, 2016

Today's assignments for Tuesday

1. Assignment: The Press was instrumental in "bringing down" a President of the United States in Watergate.
Do you think the press (the "media") helped  elect a President of the United States this year? One paragraph, your opinion, but with at least some specific instances behind your reasoning. Hand in at class Tuesday.
2. One  potential test question on Watergate.
3. Watch Pam Henry documentary. One potential test question on her.

Wednesday, November 9, 2016






Assignment: The Press was instrumental in "bringing down" a President of the United States in Watergate.
Do you think the press (the "media") helped  elect a President of the United States this year? One paragraph, your opinion, but with at least some specific instances behind your reasoning. Hand in at class Tuesday.

Pam Henry documentary

Pam Henry
Watch this documentary before Tuesday

Tuesday, November 8, 2016

Assignments and questions

Nov. 8 History of Journalism
Review of election section, NY Times, discussion

Substitute on mid term--paragraphs
  1. Two paragraph assignments on blog on ’Nam and civil rights movement, from previous blog reading—Due Thursday
  2. One paragraph on effect of social media on this election--your views
  3. Potential final question each on Bourke-White, Friedman from last week due Thursday
  4. Two questions from today's presentations on Cronkite and Paley due Thursday
  5. What final question from history of TV video on blog ?
    Summary--three paragraphs, and five questions 
Earlier final questions you have submitted
1.     War cartoonist
2.     London bombing
3.     FDR press conferences, 12 years
4.     Marine flag raising photog
5.     Name of soldier’s publication
6.     Largest publishing empire owner
7.     Love broadcast of what disaster
8.      News reels primary goals
9.     Dorothea Lange known for
10.  Photo magazine started in 1936
11.  Congress act I n 1934 regulating broadcast
12.  Why newsreels die out

From today:
TV news questions
1.     Cronkite questions
2.     ‘Nam and TV from blog reading
3.     Civil Rights and TV from blog reading
TV and news

Summary--three paragraphs, and five questions

Monday, November 7, 2016

The "television war"

Read. What was different about covering Vietnam from WWII journalistically? One paragraph due Thursday.


 Civil Rights Movement 


Do you see any difference in the coverage of the Civil Rights movement and journalism today? One paragraph, due Thurdays.

Thursday, November 3, 2016

History of TV

Watch these links.
For Tuesday--quiz?
What two questions do you expect--handed in?

Monday, October 31, 2016

War Correspondents

Do you know who Ernie Pyle was?
Read: D-Day

NORMANDY BEACHHEAD, June 16, 1944 – I took a walk along the historic coast of Normandy in the country of France.
It was a lovely day for strolling along the seashore. Men were sleeping on the sand, some of them sleeping forever. 
Men were floating in the water, but they didn’t know they were in the water, for they were dead.
The water was full of squishy little jellyfish about the size of your hand. Millions of them. In the center each of them had a green design exactly like a four-leaf clover. The good-luck emblem. Sure. Hell yes.
I walked for a mile and a half along the water’s edge of our many-miled invasion beach. 
You wanted to walk slowly, for the detail on that beach was infinite.
The wreckage was vast and startling. The awful waste and destruction of war, even aside from the loss of human life, has always been one of its outstanding features to those who are in it. Anything and everything is expendable. 
And we did expend on our beachhead in Normandy during those first few hours.
For a mile out from the beach there were scores of tanks and trucks and boats that you could no longer see, for they were at the bottom of the water – swamped by overloading, or hit by shells, or sunk by mines. Most of their crews were lost.
You could see trucks tipped half over and swamped. You could see partly sunken barges, and the angled-up corners of jeeps, and small landing craft half submerged. And at low tide you could still see those vicious six-pronged iron snares that helped snag and wreck them.
On the beach itself, high and dry, were all kinds of wrecked vehicles. There were tanks that had only just made the beach before being knocked out. There were jeeps that had been burned to a dull gray. There were big derricks on caterpillar treads that didn’t quite make it. There were half-tracks carrying office equipment that had been made into a shambles by a single shell hit, their interiors still holding their useless equipage of smashed typewriters, telephones, office files.
There were LCT’s (landing craft tanks) turned completely upside down, and lying on their backs, and how they got that way I don’t know. There were boats stacked on top of each other, their sides caved in, their suspension doors knocked off.
In this shoreline museum of carnage, there were abandoned rolls of barbed wire and smashed bulldozers and big stacks of thrown-away lifebelts and piles of shells still waiting to be moved.
In the water floated empty life rafts and soldiers’ packs and ration boxes, and mysterious oranges.
On the beach lay snarled rolls of telephone wire and big rolls of steel matting and stacks of broken, rusting rifles.
On the beach lay, expended, sufficient men and mechanism for a small war. They were gone forever now. And yet we could afford it.
We could afford it because we were on, we had our toehold, and behind us there were such enormous replacements for this wreckage on the beach that you could hardly conceive of their sum total. Men and equipment were flowing from England in such a gigantic stream that it made the waste on the beachhead seem like nothing at all, really nothing at all.
A few hundred yards back on the beach is a high bluff. Up there we had a tent hospital, and a barbed-wire enclosure for prisoners of war. From up there you could see far up and down the beach, in a spectacular crow’s-nest view, and far out to sea.
And standing out there on the water beyond all this wreckage was the greatest armada man has ever seen. You simply could not believe the gigantic collection of ships that lay out there waiting to unload.
Looking from the bluff, it lay thick and clear to the far horizon of the sea and beyond, and it spread out to the sides and was miles wide. Its utter enormity would move the hardest man.
As I stood up there I noticed a group of freshly taken German prisoners standing nearby. They had not yet been put in the prison cage. They were just standing there, a couple of doughboys leisurely guarding them with tommy guns.
The prisoners too were looking out to sea – the same bit of sea that for months and years had been so safely empty before their gaze. Now they stood staring almost as if in a trance.
They didn’t say a word to each other. They didn’t need to. The expression on their faces was something forever unforgettable. In it was the final horrified acceptance of their doom.
If only all Germans could have had the rich experience of standing on the bluff and looking out across the water and seeing what their compatriots saw.
War Correspondent

Who was Edward R. Murrow?

War Correspondent



Tuesday, October 18, 2016

Presentation guidelines, schedule

1. 3-page paper, handed into prof day of presentation
2. 1-page outline to each member of class
3. 10-minute presentation
4. Must include: (Hint: make outline for class first)
  • Powerpoint optional, but must include photographs, visuals, including photograph, dated timeline chart of life
  • List of important journalism by title, or work
  • A brief sample of their work
  • Why they're important to American journalism
  • Lessons for today?
Nov. 3--Casey, Ereich
Nov. 8--McKenna, Taylor
Nov. 10--Derrick, Alex
Nov. 15--Grecia, Auri
Nov. 17--Macy, Blaze
Nov. 22--Nate, Evelyn
Nov. 29--Peter, Meagan
Dec. 1--T.J., Carolyn
Dec. 6--Rachel

Remainder of semester schedule
Oct. 25-27--Jazz, radio, Depression
Nov. 1-2--World War II
Nov. 8-1---Television, 1950s
Nov. 15-17--Vietnam, Watergate
Nov. 22--Satellites, computers, cable
Nov. 29-Dec. 1--Internet, digital
Dec. 6-9--"Social," trends

Media evaluation paper due Dec. 9

Dec. 13--Final Test

Monday, October 3, 2016

"Take-aways" so far

What we've covered, what you should know and understand
    1.    Public Occurrences--1690--Benjamin Harris
    2.    New England Courant--1721--James Franklin--Unshackled from government, spirit of rebellion
    3.    Pennsylvania Gazette--1729--Ben Franklin--Made journalism respectable
    4.    Commerce and advertising fueled growth
    5.    Political tensions, controversy, fueled growth
    6.    John Peter Zenger case 1734-35--precedent for truth as defense in libel by 1790
    7.    Press there to criticize the government
    8.    "Fourth Estate"
    9.    Handset type
    10.    Upper case, lower case
    11.    English common press
    12.    Colonial press--3 branches--Tory, Whig, Rebels
    13.    First cartoon-- join or die
    14.    Thomas Paine
    15.    Common sense
    16.    Thomas Jefferson
    17.    Gonzo Journalism
    18.    First Amendment
    19.    Alexander Hamilton, New York Post
    20.    First Daily--Penn Evening Post
    21.    Federalist papers
    22.    Alien and Sedition Acts
    23.    Newseum
    24.    9/11 impact on journalism
    25.    partisan press
    26.    labor papers
    27.    people's press
    28.    penny press Ben Day NY Sun
    29.    NY Herald James Bennett
    30.    Jane Grey Swisshelm
    31.    Telegraph
    32.    Railroads
    33.    steam-powered press
    34.    Sheet fed
    35.    Postal service
    36.    Cherokee Phoenix, Advocate
    37.    Eufaula Indian Journal

    38.    Horace Greeley NY Tribune
    39.    Rotary Press
    40.    Mexican War
    41.    Associated Press--the wire
    42.    Photography, Matt Brady, wet plate
    43.    woodcuts
    44.    Sectionalism, war
    45.    Abolitionist press--James Garrison The Liberator
    46.    Black--Freedom's Journal
    47.    Frederick Douglass, North Star
    48.    war affects writing
    49.    inverted pyramid, 30, briefer
    50.    Civil war "specials"
    52.   Turning the rules
    53.    web press
    53.    Influence of sectionalism,  economics, expansion, racism, urban vs. frontier, war, covering war, postal service, technology, literacy, controversy, roll in revolution,

The old way

In Colorado

Photography's impact

Thursday, September 8, 2016

In the balance--what is your freedom type?

What is your freedom type

Lessons from 9/11 Journalism

  1. The Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma
  2. Living 9/11
  3. https://archive.org/details/91
  4. What we don't learn in school
  5. Lessons for Reporters
  6. What is PTSD  
Assignment: 2-page paper, due 9:30 a.m. Tuesday, Sept. 13; Three sections:
1. Read Nos. 4,5,6.
2. Definite PTSD in your own words. Why is it important for journalists to understand?
3. What has covering the journalism of 9/11 taught you about American journalism?
4. Do you think journalism has improved since then or not? Why?

Oklahoma and 9/11--Part 2

Here's the lead and the second column I wrote about our state coverage.
For discussion: Why did our all local news newspapers consider this "local" news?

Oklahoma weeklies covering 9/11—By Terry Clark, Nov., 2001
Few of us will ever cover a bigger story than that of Sept. 11, 2001. Daily coverage documented last month revealed a day of “Second Coming” heads and Extra editions. But you find out just how big the story is when all-local-news weeklies cover it also.
And that’s what happened, with about 135 of 170 Oklahoma weeklies devoting all or part of front pages to the terrorist attacks and the local impact. From Eldorado to Boise City, from Pitcher to Valliant, from Madill to Pond Creek, from Stigler to Sayre, Oklahomans turned to their local newspapers for coverage.
Numbers are not exact, because some weeklies had already gone to press that terrible Tuesday, and covered it a week later. But a detailed content analysis of the font pages reveals several trends and some inspiriting journalism.
The run on gas stations was the most prevalent coverage with more than 65 papers carrying photos of lines at the gas pumps as Okies panicked at rumors of gas shortages – and the photos ranged from two- to five-columns.
Next most common photo was of American flags, with at last 25 newspapers having photos of the American flag. Best …

Tuesday, September 6, 2016

Oklahoma and 9/11

Part of my article in the Oklahoma Publisher on how our newspapers covered 9/11...for my class today

Thursday, September 1, 2016

Did 9/11 change journalism?

Read two of the following links:

1 Page paper (2 paragraphs), due at start of class Tuesday, Sept.6:

Did 9/11 change journalism and what did you learn you didn't know about coverage of that day?

Paths to the First Amendment

Isaiah Thomas
First Amendment

Monday, August 29, 2016

Up for "adoption"

Here are some of the journalists you can consider for "adoption" projects:

Anna Quindlen
Maureen Dowd
xIda Wells
xNelly Bly
Katharine Graham
Marguerite Higgins
Margaret Fuller
Helen Thomas 
xMartha Gelhorn
Annie Laurie
xDorothea Lange
Mary Wells
xMolly Ivins
Sarah McClendon
Tina Brown
xIda Tarbell
Jessica Savitch
Nan Robertson
Linda Ellerbee
xDickey Chappelle
xMargaret Bourke White
Edward Murrow
xWalter Cronkite 
xRobert Capa
Ernie Pyle
Hunter Thompson
xTom Wolfe
xWoodward and Bernstein
xAnthony Shadid
xH.L. Mencken
Seymor Hersh
xJohn Hersey
William Shirer
Jimmy Breslin
xWalter Lippman
Heywood Broun
xHoward Cosell
xGrantland Rice

xThomas Friedman
Eddie Adams



Thursday, August 25, 2016

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Who is a journalist?

Who is a journalist?

“Bon jour,” say the French when greeting someone in the mornings: “Good day.” The Latin-derived French word is closest to the original Latin “diurnum” for “day.”  In late Latin, “diurnalis” meant “journal,” a daily record. As the word migrated into late Middle English as “journal,” it meant a record for travelers of the daily stages of a trip, an itinerary of the “journey.” By the late 1500s, it evolved into any daily record and was applied to periodicals.  In the late 1600s, “journalist” described a person who earned a living by writing or editing for a newspaper or periodical. In the 20th Century, it also described people working in broadcast news. All journalists provide a periodic record of events people want to, or need to, know.
--Oxford English Dictionary

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

Fear and Loathing--Is this journalism?

Gonzo Journalism

Assignment: What is Gonzo journalism? Comment below by 5 pm Aug. 24,

"America" First?

Casa de la Primera Imprenta de América at the corner of Moneda and Licenciado Primo Verdad streets in Mexico City was the home of the first printing press/print shop in what is now North America. The printer Juan Pablos oversaw the printing of at least 35 books at this print shop between 1539, the date of the first book printed in the Americas, and his death in 1560. The press arrived from Spain in 1539, almost 100 years before the first press at Harvard.

First day takeaways

What you should know:
  • Public Occurrences--1690--Benjamin Harris
  • New England Courant--1721--James Franklin--Unshackled from government, spirit of rebellion
  • Pennsylvania Gazette--1729--Ben Franklin--Made journalism respectable
  • Commerce and advertising fueled growth
  • Political tensions, controversy, fueled growth
  • John Peter Zenger case 1734-35--precedent for truth as defense in libel by 1790
  • Press there to criticize the government
  • Term to know: 
  • "Fourth Estate"
  • Handset type
  • English common press

Question--Why become powerful weapon in American Revolution?

Colonial printing

 The Mayflower

Handset type and the English Common press



Assignment: Due first of class, Thursday, Aug25...One page, on differences and similarities in colonial press and now. Bullets allowed. Read: Colonial Newspapering.

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

What's required, and when

Course requirements:
  • Attendance—if you missed more than five classes, you will fail. Excellent attendance (missing no classes) will be used to raise your final grade should your score be borderline.
  • Be on time—three times late equals an absence. If you are more than 15 minutes late, that equals an absence.
  • Follow class blog weekly,  I Am Journalism
  • Assigned online readings.
  • Quizzes and writing based on assigned readings.
  • Term paper, presentation on historical figure in journalism for second half of semester. Details in first week of class.
·      Media evaluation-- You will provide a one-page, double-spaced statement of what you believe to be the most important mass media development to date and why. I will grade this on the basis of grammar, punctuation, spelling and how well you logically defend your position. This will be turned in at the time of the final exam and count one third of your final grade.
·      Midterm and final tests.
GRADING SCALE: 100-91--A; 90-81--B; 80-70--C; 60-69--D.
  • 10 reading quizzes, writing assignments—100 points—20 percent
  • Term paper, presentation—200 points—40 percent
  • Media evaluation—50 points—10 percent
  • Two tests--75 points each--30 percent
  • Total: 500 points

DEADLINES: Must be met. Absolutely. Period. End of discussion. Journalism is a deadline business. Accordingly, late work will not be accepted. Don’t bother to hand it in—you get a “0” grade. Absence is no excuse. If you miss a day, you may not make up the assignment.

·      Since this is a class of discovery and living journalism, exact timetables cannot be guaranteed because of student discussions and individual interests. Flexibility is essential to quality education, not rote memory or lockstep schedules. Accordingly, the professor reserves the right to amend the syllabus, with notice to class, at any time, in order to facilitate your learning.

·      Weeks one-three-- Intros, Colonial, New Nation, Quiz over syllabus.  
·      Weeks four, five—New nation and trials
·      Weeks six-eight— Mass Comm Week! 1800s
·      Weeks nine-eleven—Fall Break, Midterm, early 20th Century.
·      Weeks twelve, thirteen—The digital age
·      Weeks fourteen, fifteen—Student presentations
·      Final exam—9 a.m., Dec. 13.

  • All university policies regarding grading, grade appeals, academic dishonesty, adding and dropping apply. See appropriate university publications. Academic Affairs’ Student Information Sheet  http://www.uco.edu/academicaffairs/
Any case of plagiarism will result in a 0 for the assignment. A second case will flunk you for the course, and probably ruin your future as a journalist.
·      Check syllabus attachment later for more details.
·      Note: NO FACEBOOK IN CLASS. Turn off cell phones, except for in-class research. No texting. If your phone goes off or you text, in class, you must leave and take an absence.